Build Your Own Light Tracking Robot: A Step-by-Step Guide

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Are you interested in creating your own light tracking robot? With a few simple tools and materials, you can build a device that follows light sources around the room. Not only is this project challenging and rewarding, but it also teaches valuable skills like programming, electronics, and mechanical design.

In this step-by-step guide, we will walk you through the process of building your own Arduino-based light tracking robot from scratch. Before starting the project, let’s first discuss what a light-tracking robot is and why it could be useful.

What Is a Light Tracking Robot?

A light-tracking robot is a type of autonomous mobile apparatus that tracks moving or stationary light sources such as LED bulbs, lasers or ambient lighting to adjust its location according to changes in brightness or contrast levels. These types of robots are frequently used in security cameras for night vision recording applications where they can track infrared illuminators to follow movements within their field of view without being visible themselves.

Another significant application for these robots would be for indoor horticulture purposes where they could perform various tasks such as monitoring plant growth using artificial lighting at different wavelengths throughout their life cycle accurately. In short, there are many applications where precise tracking of changing illumination patterns could come in handy.

Materials Required

To build your own Arduino-based light tracking robot you’ll need:


  • 1x Arduino board (Uno/Nano/Pro Micro)
  • LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) sensor
  • Mini breadboard
  • Jumper wires(both male-to-male and female-to-male)

Mechanical Components:

  • 2x hobbyist servo motors
  • Wheels compatible with the motor shafts
  • Chassis components: acrylic sheets/servo mounts/MDF etc.


  • Soldering iron + solder wire (.032″/0.8mm diameter should suffice)
  • Screws/nuts/bolts for attaching the components

Step-by-Step Instructions

Now that you have gathered all the necessary materials, let’s move onto assembling and programming your light tracking robot.

Step 1: Build the Robot Chassis

Start by constructing a chassis for your light tracking robot using any lightweight material such as acrylic sheets or MDF boards. Ensure that it has enough space to accommodate both the electronics components and servo motors. This can be done using various cutting tools like a saw cutter or laser cutter depending on the material used.

Step 2: Connect LDR Sensor And Servo Motors To Arduino Board

Connect an LDR sensor with jumper wires to an analog input pin of Arduino board(eg. Pin A0). Next, use two hobbyist servo motors (for motion control) connected to digital pins of Arduino board (digital pins 5 &6) via jumper wires according to their specification provided in their datasheets.

Also important here is calibrating motor motion angles with respect to their speed regulation since precision is required while moving around during object detection/tracking tasks. You may choose different types of servos based on load capacity, but we recommend using high torque micro-servos that are inexpensive yet highly effective in this project setting.

Step 3: Code Your Light Tracking Robot

To code your light tracking robot you’ll need basic programming knowledge in C++ language and an Integrated Development Environment (ex. PlatformIO/Arduino IDE), which allows you to implement your desired functionality quickly.

Here’s sample code illustrating how simple it is:

“`int SensorValue = A0;
int Threshold = X; //The ‘X’ value can range from 400-800 depending on room brightness.
Servo leftServo;
Servo rightServo;

void setup(){
pinMode(SensorValue, INPUT);

void loop(){
int LDRValue = analogRead(SensorValue);
if(LDRValue < Threshold)
{ leftServo.write(180);
rightServo.write(180); }
{ leftServo.write(0);

Upon running the above code, whenever you turn on your light source, your robot will track it by moving in its direction until the light is switched off.

Step 4: Connect All Electronics Components Together

Make sure that everything is connected correctly before continuing. Use a mini breadboard to connect all electronics components together and grant power supply via USB based on Arduino specifications.

Step 5: Test Your Light Tracking Robot

Finally, test your newly built light tracking robot. Turn on a light source such as an LED bulb or flashlight at one end of the room and watch as your robot automatically tracks it to adjust its position according to changes in brightness levels detected by LDR sensor attached with it.


In just five steps, you have learned how to build your own Arduino-based light tracking robot from scratch using simple materials like hobbyist servo motors and acrylic sheets. Not only can this project be fun and challenging for DIY enthusiasts but also serve practical purposes for professionals of various fields like indoor horticulture or advanced security systems ensuring that robots can follow sources of interest within their field of vision precisely.

Notably, modern lighting solutions range from incandescent bulbs up to energy-efficient LEDs; thus, why not upgrade them with convenience utilizing an easily customizable autonomous system? More recently produced lights are directed downward (inbouwspots) making them great candidates for testing out your new creation!


Here are three popular FAQs with answers for “Build Your Own Light Tracking Robot: A Step-by-Step Guide”:

What skills do I need to have to build a light tracking robot?
Answer: Basic knowledge and experience in robotics, electronics, and programming will help you get started. Familiarity with Arduino boards, sensors, motors, and circuits is beneficial.

How long does it take to complete the project?
Answer: Depending on your proficiency level and available time, building a light tracking robot can take anywhere from a few days to several weeks. The guide provides detailed step-by-step instructions that you can follow at your own pace.

Can I modify the design or add other features for my robot?
Answer: Yes! Once you’ve mastered the basic build process outlined in the guidebook, feel free to make modifications or enhancements as desired. You can experiment with different types of sensors or add more advanced control mechanisms using additional components like Bluetooth modules or GPS trackers.